Data & References


Population Status of Neotropical Amphibians.

In collaboration with the IUCN Species Survival Commission, the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International, the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force, and AmphibianWeb, RANA participated in the Global Amphibian Assessment, the first effort to evaluate all amphibian species according to the Red List Criteria of the IUCN.

The results of the GAA are here:

“Disappearing Jewels: The Status of New World Amphibians”, a report on the results of the GAA in the Americas is available here.

Files (in ArcView format) of the distribution maps of the world’s amphibians are available here.

Latin American results of the GAA in a searchable database that also incluyes similar information on birds and mammals is available here.


Amphibians and Reptiles Observed During the RANA-sponsored Pan-American Studies Institute Course.

List of species seen by students and faculty 4-11 January 2004 at the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.


RANA Inspired Publications

    Updated August 2007

    1. Burrowes, P. A., R. L. Joglar, and D. A. Green. 2004. Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. Herpetologica 60:141-154.

    2. Bustamante, M. R., S. R. Ron, and L. A. Coloma. 2005. Cambios en la diversidad en siete comunidades de anuros en los Andes de Ecuador. Biotropica 37:180-189.

    3. Carnaval, A. C. O. Q.,  R. Puschendorf, O. L. Peixoto, V. K. Verdade, and M. T. Rodrigues. 2006. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Broadly Distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. Ecohealth 3:41-48.

    4. Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. and P. Meza-Ramos. 2007. An enigmatic new species of glassfrog (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae) from the Amazonian Andean slopes of Ecuador. Zootaxa 1485:33-41.

    5. Eterovick, P. C., A. C. Oliveira de Queiroz Carnaval, D. M. Borges-Nojosa, D. L. Silvano, M. V. Segalla, and I. Sazima. 2005. Amphibian declines in Brazil: an overview. Biotropica 37:166-179.

    6. Eterovick, P. C. and I. Sazima. 2004. Anfíbios da Serra do Cipó. Editora PUC Minas, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

    7. Fox, S. F., A. L. Greer, R. Torres-Cervantes, and J. P. Collins. 2006. First case of ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in natural populations of a South American frog, Atelognathus patagonicus.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72:87-92.

    8. Fox, S. F., J. H. Yoshioka, M. E. Cuello, and C. Ubeda. 2005. Status, distribution, and ecology of a threatened semi-aquatic frog (Atelognathus patagonicus) of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Copeia. 2005:920-928.

    9. La Marca, E. 2007 ("2005"). Estatus de poblaciones de ranas de la familia Dendrobatidae (Amphibia: Anura) en sus localidades tipo en los Andes de Venezuela. Herpetotropicos 2:73-86.

    10. La Marca, E., K. R. Lips, S. Lötters, R. Puschendorf, R. Ibáñez, J. V. Rueda-Almonacid, R.  Schulte, C.  Marty, F. Castro, J. Manzanilla-Puppo, J. E.  García-Pérez, E. Toral, F. Bolaños, G. Chaves, J. A. Pounds, and B. E. Young. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37:190-201.

    11. Lampo, M., A. Rodriguez, E. La Marca, and P. Daszak. 2006. A chytridiomycosis epidemic and a severe dry season precede disappearance of Atelopus species from the Venezuelan Andes. Herpetological Journal 16:395-402.

    12. Lips, K. R. 2005.  Quantification of selection and male reproductive success in Hyla calypsa. Pages 215-226  In  Donnely, M. A., B. I. Crother, C. Guyer, M. H. Wake, and M. E. White (editors) Ecology and evolution in the tropics: a herpetological perspective. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 

    13. Lips, K. R., F. Brem, R. Brenes, J. D. Reeve, R. A. Alford, J. Voyles, C. Carey, A. Pessier, L. Livo, and J. P. Collins. 2006. Infectious disease and global biodiversity loss: pathogens and enigmatic amphibian extinctions.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 103:3165-3170.

    14. Lips, K. R., P. A. Burrowes, J. R. Mendelson III, and G. Parra-Olea. 2005. Amphibian declines in Latin America: widespread population declines, extinctions and impacts. Biotropica 37:163-165.

    15. Lips, K. R., P. A. Burrowes, J. R. Mendelson III, and G. Parra-Olea. 2005. Amphibian declines in Latin America: a synthesis. Biotropica 37:222-226.

    16. Lips, K. R. and M. A. Donnelly.  2005.  Lessons from the Tropics.  Pages 198-205  In Lannoo, M.J. (ed.), Amphibian declines: the conservation of United States species. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

    17. Lips, K. R., J. R. Mendelson III, A. Muñoz-Alonso, L. Canseco-Márquez, and D. G. Mulcahy. 2004. Amphibian population declines in montane southern Mexico: resurveys of historical localities. Biological Conservation 119:555-564.

    18. Lips, K. R., J. D. Reeve, and L. R. Witters. 2003. Ecological traits predicting amphibian declines in Central America. Conservation Biology 17:1078-1088.

    19. Manzanilla, J. and E. La Marca. 2004. Population status of the Rancho Grande harlequin frog (Atelopus cruciger Lichtenstein and Martens 1856), a proposed critically endangered species from the Venezuelan Coastal Range. Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas 62:5-29.

    20. McCranie, J. R. and F. E. Castañeda. 2007. Guía de campo de los Anfibios de Honduras. Bibliomanía, Salt Lake City, Utah.

    21. Mendelson, J. R., III, E. D. Brodie, Jr., J. M. Malone, M. E. Acevedo, M. A. Baker, N. J. Smatresk, and J. A. Campbell. 2004. Investigation of factors associated with the catastrophic decline of a cloudforest frog fauna in Guatemala. Revista de Biologia Tropical 52:991–1000.

    22. Mendelson III, J.R., K. R. Lips, R. W. Gagliardo, G. B. Rabb, J. P. Collins, J. E. Diffendorfer, P. Daszak, R. Ibáñez D., K. C. Zippel, D. P. Lawson, K. M. Wright, S. N. Stuart, C. Gascon, H. R. da Silva, P. A. Burrowes, R. L. Joglar, E. La Marca, S. Lötters, L. H. du Preez, C. Weldon, A. Hyatt, J. V. Rodriguez-Mahecha, S. Hunt, H. Robertson, B. Lock, C.J. Raxworthy, D. R. Frost, R. C. Lacy, R. A. Alford, J. A. Campbell, G. Parra-Olea, F. Bolaños, J. J. Calvo Domingo, T. Halliday, J. B. Murphy, M. H. Wake, L. A. Coloma, S. L. Kuzmin, M. S. Price, K. M. Howell, M. Lau, R. Pethiyagoda, M. Boone, M. J. Lannoo, A. R. Blaustein, A. Dobson, R. A. Griffiths, M. L. Crump, D. B. Wake, and E. D. Brodie, Jr. 2006. Confronting amphibian declines. Science 313: 48.

    23. Mendelson III, J. R., K. R. Lips, J. E. Diffendorfer, R. W. Gagliardo, G. B. Rabb, J. P. Collins, P. Daszak, R. Ibáñez D., K. C. Zippel, S. N. Stuart, C. Gascon, H. R. da Silva, P. A. Burrowes, R. C. Lacy, F. Bolaños, L. A. Coloma, K. M. Wright, and D. B. Wake. 2006. Response: The Amphibian conservation action plan. Science 314:1541-1542.

    24. Mendelson, J. R., III, B. L. Williams, C. A. Sheil, and D. G. Mulcahy. 2005. Systematics of the Bufo coccifer complex (Anura: Bufonidae) of Mesoamerica. Scientific Papers, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas 38:1-27.

    25. Merino-Viteri, A., L. Coloma, and A. Almendáriz. 2005. Los Telmatobius de los Andes de Ecuador y su disminución poblacional. Monografías de Herpetología 7:9-37.

    26. O'Neill, E. M. and J. R. Mendelson III. 2004. The taxonomy of Costa Rican toads referred to Bufo melanochlorus Cope, with the description of a new species. Journal of Herpetology 38:487-494.

    27. Parra-Olea, G., E. Martínez-Meyer, and G. Pérez-Ponce de León. 2005. Forecasting climate change effects on salamander distribution in the highlands of central Mexico. Biotropica 37:202-208.

    28. Pounds, J. A. and R. Puschendorf. 2004. Clouded futures. Nature 427:107-109.

    29. Pounds, J. A., M. R. Bustamante, L. A. Coloma, J. A. Consuegra, M. P L. Fogden, P. N. Foster, E. La Marca, K. L. Masters, A. Merino-Viteri, R. Puschendorf, S. R. Ron, G. A. Sánchez-Azofeifa, C. J. Still, and B. E. Young. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439:161-167.

    30. Pounds, J. A., M. R. Bustamante, L. A. Coloma, J. A. Consuegra, M. P L. Fogden, P. N. Foster, E. La Marca, K. L. Masters, A. Merino-Viteri, R. Puschendorf, S. R. Ron, G. A. Sánchez-Azofeifa, C. J. Still, and B. E. Young. 2007. Pounds et al. reply. Nature 447:E5-E6.

    31. Pounds, J. A., A. C. Carnaval, R. Puschendorf, C. F. B. Haddad, and K. L. Masters. 2006. Responding to amphibian loss. Science 314:1541.

    32. Puschendorf, R. and F. Bolaños. 2006. Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infections in Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri: effects of stains and body parts used. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42:301-306.

    33. Puschendorf, R., F. Bolaños, and G. Chaves. 2006. The amphibian chytrid fungus along an altitudinal transect before the first reported declines in Costa Rica. Biological Conservation 132:136-142.

    34. Puschendorf, R., F. Castañeda, and J. R. McCranie. 2006.  Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from Pico Bonito National Park, Honduras. EcoHealth 3:178-181.

    35. Ranvestel, A. W., K. R. Lips, C. M. Pringle, M. R. Whiles, and R. J. Bixby. 2004. Neotropical tadpoles influence stream benthos: evidence for the ecological consequences of decline in amphibian populations. Freshwater Biology 49:274-285.

    36. Regester, K. J., K. R. Lips, and M. R. Whiles. 2006. Larval production, emergence production, and oviposition by salamanders (Ambystomatidae) contribute to energy flow between habitats in a forest ecosystem of southern Illinois.  Oecologia 147:303-314.

    37. Ron, S. R. 2005. Predicting the distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the New World. Biotropica 37:209-221.

    38. Santiago, S. and E. La Marca. 2007. Comportamiento del clima a finales del siglo XX en los altos Andes venezolanos y el declive de Atelopus mucubajiensis. Herpetotropicos 3:7-20.

    39. Stuart, S. N., J. S. Chanson, N. A. Cox, B. E. Young, A. S. L. Rodrigues, D. L. Fischman, and R. W. Waller. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306:1783-1786.

    40. Stuart, S. N., J. S. Chanson, N. A. Cox, B. E. Young, A. S. L. Rodrigues, D. L. Fischman, and R. W. Waller. 2005. Response to comment on ‘‘Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide’’. Science 309:1999.

    41. Stuart, S. N., J. S. Chanson, N. A. Cox, B. E. Young, A. S. L. Rodrigues, D. L. Fischman, and R. W. Waller. 2005. Response to comment on ‘‘The past and future of extant amphibians’’. Science 308:50.

    42. Velo-Antonio, G., P. A Burrowes, R. Juglar, I. Martínez-Solano, K. Beard, and Gabriela Parra-Olea. 2007. Phylogenetic study of Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae) reveals deep genetic fragmentation in Puerto Rico and pinpoints origins of Hawaiian populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, in press.

    43. Whiles, M. R., K. R. Lips, C. Pringle, S.S. Kilham, R. Brenes, S. Connelly, J. C. Colon Guad, M. Hunte-Brown, A. D. Huryn, C. Montgomery, and S. Peterson.  2006.  The consequences of amphibian population declines to the structure and function of neotropical stream ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4: 27-34.

    44. Whitfield, S. M., K. E. Bell, T. Philippi, M. Sasa, F. Bolaños, G. Chaves, J. M. Savage, and M. A. Donnelly. 2007. Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 104:8352-8356.

    45. Young, B. E. and K. R. Lips. 2002. RANA: Red de Análisis sobre Anfibios Neotropicales Amenazados. Froglog 53:1-2.

    46. Young, B., S. Stuart, J. Long, and N. Cox. 2003. Más de la mitad de los anfibios centroamericanos están amenazados por la extinción. Froglog 57:3-5.

    47. Young, B. E., S. N. Stuart, J. S. Chanson, N. A. Cox, and T. M. Boucher.  2004.  Joyas que Están Desapareciendo: El Estado de Conservación de los Anfibios en el Nuevo Mundo.  NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.